Hanushek, Eric, & Woessmann, Ludger
Does Educational Tracking Affect Performance and Inequality? Differences-in-Differences Evidence Across Countries
Estimate the tracking effects in the differences in outcomes between primary and secondary school across tracked and non-tracked systems in the world.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
The Economic Journal
Vol. 116, pp. 63-76
- Early tracking increases educational inequality.
- While less clear, there is also a tendency for early tracking to reduce mean performance.
- Variation in performance , measured in a variety of ways, tends to increase across levels of schooling when a country employs early tracking.
- Both high and low achievers lose from tracking. The net impact comes from the differential impacts on different parts of the distribution.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Ability Groups, Inequality, Tracking
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
Difference in Difference Regression
26 different countries
Unit of Analysis:
- Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Progress in International Reading literacy Study (PIRLS), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) .
- PISA 200/02 and 2003 data of 15-year-olds Reading
- PIRLS 2001 for 4th graders in Reading
- TIMSS for 1995, 2003, and 2003 8th and 4th graders in Math and Science.
- Countries included are: New Zealand, Turkey, United States, Norway, Iceland, Greece, Canada, Italy, France, Slovak Republic, Germany, Hungary, Sweden, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Latvia, Netherlands.
- DV: Different measures for inequality (standard deviation of test scores within each country, test-score difference between the student performing at the 7th percentile and the student performing at the 25th percentile in each country, performance difference between the 95th and the 5th percentile.
- IV: Early tracking, inequality in primary school, etc.