Carpenter II, Dick, & Ramirez, Al
More Than One Gap: Dropout Rate Gaps Between and Among Black, Hispanic, and White Students
University of Colorado
Examine variables associated with dropout behavior as a measure of achievement gaps.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Journal of Advanced Academics
Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 32-64
- Results show multiple achievement gaps both between and within groups, ultimately concluding that within-group gaps were often more significant than gaps between groups.
- Two common predictors of all three groups (Black, Hispanic and White) are being held back and number of suspensions. White and Black students shared only one common predictor beyond being held back and number of suspensions: parental involvement.
- Race/ethnicity generally proved not to be a significant predictor of dropping out.
- The factors that appear important in students' likelihood of dropping out seem similar for Whites and Hispanics.
- Significant predictors for dropping out are not consistent with those for academic achievement. Additionally, the lack of overlap between Black students and the other two groups is more pronounced in the dropout data than in the academic achievement results.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Achievement Gap, Dropouts, Racial Composition
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
12th grade students
Unit of Analysis:
- Uses NELS:88 data
- Includes 17,613 students, 2,010 Black, 2,445 Hispanic, 13, 158 White. Other racial groups were excluded.
- DV: Dropout behavior as an achievement measure
- IV's change depending on Phase of study. Phase I
- IV: Percent White students in school, time spent on homework during the week outside of school, SES, number of units of algebra 1, participation in an ESL program, language other than English regularly spoken at home, family composition, parental involvement, student race/ethnicity, teacher certification, enrollment, , school type, and urbanicity
- Phase II
- IV: If student was ever held back, number of suspensions, inclusion in a dropout program, country of birth, gender, hours per day watching TV, hours per week spent working/ in extracurricular activities, how often student uses computer per week, number of siblings who dropped out, 8th & 10th reading test scores and math test scores, % of 10th graders who drop out before graduation, if the school district allows choice in enrollment, the level of gang problems in the school, and how much influence gangs have in compelling others to dropout.