Hanushek, Eric, & Rivkin, Steven
School Quality and the Black-White Achievement Gap
Impact of school quality on the Black-White achievement gap.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
National Bureau of Economic Research
Working Paper 12651
- Strong evidence that schools have a substantial effect on the differential between Black-White achievement gap.
- The majority of the expansion of the achievement gap with age occurs between rather than within schools in both the ECLS and TSP data.
- Identifiable school factors- the rate of student turnover, the proportion of teachers with little or no experience, and student racial composition- explain much of the growth in the achievement gap between grades 3 and 8 in Texas schools.
- Differences in school quality play a fundamental role in the growth of achievement differences with age.
- Differences in school mobility rates, in the prevalence of beginning teachers, and in the racial composition of schools combine to exacerbate early racial achievement gaps.
- School quality plays an important role in the determination of achievement and racial achievement differences.
Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Math, Peer Effects, Racial Composition, School Quality, Teachers
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
Fixed Effects Regression Models
Unit of Analysis:
- Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (ECLS) for analysis through grade 5 and the Texas Schools Project (TSP) panel data for grades 3 through 8.
- Only a subsample of students who changed schools was included in the follow-up waves. (Limitation).
- Focus on the variations in key school inputs that occur within schools over time to identify the fundamental school related parameters of interest.
- Fixed effects account for the possibility that achievement trends vary systematically with changes in teacher experience, peer turnover, or school racial composition as students age.
- - DV: Mathematics Achievement
- - IV: student, family, teacher and peer factors, school factors. Things such as class size, teacher education, average experiences, student turnover, racial composition, initial teacher experience, average lagged test score, the proportions of those eligible for a subsidized lunch, female, Black, and having a family initiated school change, indicators for the first grade offered in a school and grade by year.