Van Hook, Jennifer
Immigration and African American Educational Opportunity: The Transformation of Minority Schools
Penn State University
Assesses the extent to which African Americans versus non-Hispanic Whites attend schools with children with limited English proficiency (LEP).
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Sociology of Education
Vol.75, No. 2, pp. 169-189
- Neither non-Hispanic Whites nor African Americans could be attending school with many children of immigrants or LEP children because of the regions of the country in which they live.
- Hispanic and Asian students are far more likely to go to school with many LEP students.
- Given a context in which it is possible for children to attend school with LEP students, African Americans are more likely to do so than are non-Hispanic Whites.
- Relative to the percentage of LEP students in the state, LEP students are underrepresented in schools of the typical non-Hispanic White.
- The underrepresentation of LEP students in the schools of White but not Black students derives primarily from differences in district-level enrollments.
- African American students are more likely relative to majority Whites to have LEP schoolmates in primary schools than in secondary schools even after district enrollments are taken into account.
- Children of immigrants do not go to the same schools as African American and non-Hispanic White children.
- Results are suggestive of patterns of segregation- that is, the separation of majority non-Hispanic Whites from both LEP students and African Americans, not the separation of LEP students and African Americans from each other.
- Most of the "problem" can be attributed to pervasive patterns of residential segregation in cities that occur across, not within, school district boundaries.
- It is unlikely that immigration has affected the schools attended by most African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.
- The school-attendance patterns that occur in areas with many immigrants provide hints that in certain contexts, immigration would disproportionately affect the schooling experiences of African Americans.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Composition, English Language Learners, Language, Residential Segregation, Segregation
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
California Public Schools
Unit of Analysis:
- National school-level survey data
- 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)
- Data includes racial-ethnic composition of each school CCD
- Analysis relies on the 1993-94 surveys of 11,352 public and private schools.
- Data on LEP students in California public schools STAR report
- 1995 October Current Population Survey: includes information on school enrollment and the place of birth of children and their parents
- DV: Likelihood of having limited English proficiency (LEP) classmates
- IV: race (African American, non-Hispanic White)