Armor, David J.
Reflections of an Expert Witness
George Mason University
Reflections of Armor's experience as an expert witness in over 30 school desegregation cases
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
The End of Desegregation?
- Armor describes his testimony as an expert witness in school desegregation cases and his research findings.
- Testified on his research findings that busing did not improve Black achievement.
- Identifies three phases in the history of desegregation: liability phase of the 1970s, searching for feasible remedies in the 1980s, and the unitary era of the 1990s.
- Armor's testimony in Armour v. Nix helped the court's ruling against metropolitan-wide desegregation plan.
- Armor finds that achievement was not an issue for liability in most courts. Psychological harm of segregation was the primary issue.
- Liability was determined by de jure school segregation.
- Armor's busing study was not considered relevant for the remedial phase. For cases in this phase, Armor testified that White flight and resegregation resulted from mandatory busing.
- Armor helped design and defend a voluntary plan that was accepted in Savannah.
- Armor gave testimony on behalf of school districts seeking unitary status. Dallas and Wilmington mark the start of his focus on academic achievement and achievement gaps in unitary status work.
- Armor found that school racial composition did not affect Black achievement and that most of Black-White achievement gap is explained by SES.
Chapter in Book
Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Busing, Desegregation, Racial Composition, Segregation, Voluntary Desegregation, White Flight
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- The Evidence on Busing (Armor, 1972)
- Court cases cited:
- Milikin v. Bradley
- Spangler v. Pasedena Board of Ed
- Armour v. Nix
- Carlin v. San Diego Board of Ed
- Crawford v. Los Angeles Board of Ed
- Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County
- Capacchione v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg
- Jenkins v. Missouri