Sirin, Selcuk R.
Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research
Meta-analysis and review of literature on socioeconomic status and academic achievement.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Review of Educational Research
Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 417-453
- The primary research objective was to determine the magnitude of the relation between SES and academic achievement.
- The study found a medium level association between SES and achievement at the student level and a high level association at the school level.
- Family SES is one of the strongest correlates is very influential on academic achievement. The type of SES measure and achievement measure affect the strength of the correlations found.
- Researchers must consider four factors: unit of analysis for SES, type of SES measure, range of SES variable, and source of SES data.
- The findings suggest that relationship between SES and academic achievement increases across levels of schooling, except high school where gap tends to remain the same.
- SES is a strong predictor for Whites, and the more minority students in a sample, the weaker the association between SES and achievement.
- Limitations of the study: only includes studies from 1990 to 2000; no unpublished data included; limited to the US; searches may have missed some relevant work; and the analysis is limited by the quality of the studies included.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Academic Achievement, SES
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- The data are from research published in professional journals in 1990-2000. The sample includes 101,157 students, 6,871 schools and 128 school districts. 74 independent samples.
- Studies included measure SES and academic achievement, used quantitative data, and sample K-12 students in the US.
- Coding Procedure for SES Effects Size (ES): Coded the statistics needed to calculate effect size (correlation coefficients, means, std dev, t-tests, F ratios, Chi square, degrees of freedom on outcome measures). The ES used in this review was r. Because most results were reported as a correlation, the raw correlation coefficient was entered as the ES measure.
- A shifting unit of analysis was used for this meta-analysis. Ave ES was calculated with one correlation from each sample. One correlation was taken from each study for each construct.