Mickelson, Roslyn A.
Subverting Swann: First- and Second Generation Segregation in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools
Effects of First and Second Generation segregation on the academic outcomes of CMS students.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
American Educational Research Journal
Vol. 38 , No.2, pp. 215-252
- First Generation segregation in CMS was never fully eliminated.
- School districts practices and policies have subverted Swann's mandate.
- There is Second Generation Segregation (tracking) in CMS.
- Segregation impairs all students academic achievement .
- Blacks are more likely than Whites to be disadvantaged by segregation in school.
- The greater proportion of a student's elementary school education that takes place in a racially isolated Black elementary school, the lower the student scores on standardized tests and the lower his/her track placement in secondary school.
- Blacks suffer the greatest harms of these dynamics because they are more likely to be found in racially segregated black schools.
- Track placement is influenced by student's race. Black students are more likely to be found in lower tracks than White students with comparable prior achievement, family background, and other individual characteristics including self reported effort.
- Track placement, in turn, exerts an extremely powerful effect on high school grades and scores on standardized tests, including the SAT.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Academic Achievement, Busing, Desegregation, English, Math, Outcomes, Science, Second-generation Segregation, Tracking
Method of Analysis:
12 grade English classrooms in Charlotte-Mecklenburg
Unit of Analysis:
- Survey conducted in 1997 with information about students' attitudes toward education and the future, educational and occupational aspirations, demographic characteristics, family background, etc.
- CMS district records with indicators of school-level variables, as well as expert witness reports from the 1999 desegregation trial.
- Set of phone interviews conducted from December 1998 through June 1999 with CMS secondary principals and CMS senior administrators. Additional interviews with several current and former school board members.
- Random sample of 1996-1997 senior English classes stratified by track and drawn from every high school in the entire school system. Also includes a longitudinal measure of each student's exposure to first-generation segregation and to second-generation segregation in the form of high school track system.
- DV: Weighted grade point average, end -of-course tests, sixth grade California Achievement Test score (composite measures), Scholastics Assessment Test, Track placement.
- IV: Race, gender, cultural capital, effort, college-bound peer group, track placement, prior achievement, abstract attitudes toward education, concrete attitudes toward education, proportion of elementary education in a segregated Black school, magnet, percent gifted in high school.