Armor, David J.
Lessons Learned from School Desegregation
George Mason University
Theories about why desegregation should improve Black achievement.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Rowman & Littlefield
Generational Change: Closing the Test Score Gap, Chapter 5, pp 115-142
- Variation and lack of consistency of results from one study or set of data to another (among different cities).
- Inconsistencies between the NAEP and state- level data. The most striking aspect of this review is the variation and lack of consistency of results from one study or set of data to another.
- There seems to be a Black culture effect that reduces motivation for school.
- Possibility that negative effects of Black peers may operate unless they are counteracted by specific curriculum approaches, teacher certification, academic standards, or a combination of all three.
- Absenteeism, homework, and class size taken together may explain about one-fourth of the difference in Black scores between predominantly Black schools and racially mixed schools.
- Absenteeism and time spent on homework are arguably Black culture effects arising from lack of parental involvement.
- Class size is clearly a school resource effect.
Chapter in Book
Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Composition, Culture, Desegregation, Math, Parents, Peer Effects
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- 1996 NAEP using percent Black instead of percent White
- Individual math scores for eight graders from the 1996 national administration
- New York / North Carolina / South Carolina and Texas.
- Descriptive statistics of race and achievement.
- Analyses self-esteem theory, educational inputs theory, peer group theory, and family risk factors.
- He makes references to implied multivariate analysis of 1992 & 1996 NAEP.
- DV: N.A.
- IV: Black achievement (measured as math scores), school racial composition, percent poverty rate, student characteristics (e.g., self-identify as good at math, plan to graduate from college, discuss school at home daily, days absent, hours of TV per day), teacher characteristics (e.g., level of education, certification, college major/minor in math, percent Black), curriculum (e.g., percent in algebra class, emphasis on algebra, hours of math instruction per week, minutes of homework per day, class size)