Hanushek, Eric, & Raymond, Margaret
Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance
Provide evidence on the expected effects of NCLB not only on student performance but also on other potential consequences. Controlled for student and school characteristics.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
NBER -National Bureau of Economics
- Introduction of state accountability had a positive impact on student math performance during the 1990s. States that introduced consequential accountability systems early, tended to show more rapid gains in NAEP performance, holding other things constant.
- Report cards do not have a significant influence on performance.
- Large differences in sending per pupil never influences score. The impact of aggregate state spending is consistently small and statistically insignificant.
- When states introduce accountability measures, they tend simultaneously to reduce on average their exclusion rates by a small amount.
- With disaggregation of performance by race, distinct differences in gains by Black and Hispanics.
- The Black-White gap appears to have been harmed over the decade by increasing minority concentration.
Academic Achievement, Accountability, Achievement Gap, Math, No Child Left Behind, Racial Composition, Reading
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
Fixed Effects Regression Models
Unit of Analysis:
- Uses NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) data.
- Two elements: 1)tracking over performance 2) race and ethnicity
- 348 observations of state gain on test is available
- Two cohort observations for math growth (1992-96 and 1996-2000) and two for reading growth (1994-98 and 1998-2002).--> Panel of achievement in each subject
- Data on accountability come from a survey and analysis of all states by CREDO (Fletcher & Raymond (2002).
- DV: Achievement Data (Growth in NAEP Performance for reading and for math -4th-8th grade)..
- IV: Demographics, school resources and school racial and ethnic composition, accountability system for schools (whether or not they attached consequences to school performance or simply provided a public report), also includes summary data on the racial and ethnic composition across the schools in each state (state fixed effects).