Crain, Robert L.
School Integration and the Academic Achievement of Negroes
John Hopkins University
Integration effects on Blacks achievement.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Sociology of Education
Vol. 44, No.1, pp. 1-26
- Students in integrated schools have a dropout rate one fourth lower than those in segregated schools. The dropout rate from segregated schools, is almost twice as high.
- Elementary school integration doors make a difference in rates of college attendance.
- Some of the effect of integration, but certainly not all of it, can be attributed to school quality.
- Respondents who attended integrated schools have had more contact with whites, have less anti-white feeling, and thus make a conscious effort to live in integrated situations.
- School integration, by bringing Black children into contact with Whites, encourages trust and optimism about how they will be treated.
- Person who attended mixed schools - one integrated one segregated- are the least happy.
- The effects of association with highly able or highly motivated students occur at high school level, while more deep-seated psychological processes which lead to feeling of control or "happiness" occur in integrated elementary schools.
- Integration has a stronger effect upon the educational attainment of males.
- Integration has a decisive impact on what a Black thinks it means to live in a White man's world.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Academic Achievement, Contact Theory , Dropouts, Elementary School, Geographic Location, Integration, Perceptions, Self-Esteem
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- Interviews during the summer of 1966 of 1,624 Black men and women aged 21 to 45, living in metropolitan areas of the North and West (interviewed).
- Interviewing was done by Black interviewers.
- Respondents divided in three groups: those born in the North, those born in the South but moved North before age 10, and those who migrated North after their tenth birthday.
- Asked things about : attendance to elementary school with White students and many other things.
- DV:High School graduation, college attendance, verbal test scores (measured using shortened version of a multiple choice synonym test adapted to survey research by J. B. Minor)
- IV: School type (integrated, mixed, segregated), region, family background (parents education, stability)