Ferguson, Ronald F.
Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations and The Black-White Test Score Gap
Ways in which teachers' and students' behaviors might be causes/consequences of racially disparate perceptions and expectations regarding achievement.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
The Brooking Institute
The Black-White Test Score Gap, Chapter 8, pp 273-317
- No consensus has emerged from scholarship concerning the importance of racial bias in the classroom. There is no single benchmark for racial neutrality.
- There are at least three benchmarks of racial bias: 1) unconditional race neutrality 2) race neutrality conditioned on observables 3) race neutrality conditioned on unobserved potential.
- Racial biases exist in teachers' perceptions, expectations or behaviors, or in any combination of the three.
- Teachers perceptions and expectations are biased in favor of Whites and teachers behaviors appear less supportive of Blacks.
- Teacher's beliefs probably affect Black students more tham White students
- Teacher's perceptions, expectations and behaviors probably do help to sustain and perhaps even expand, the Black-White test score gap.
- The Great Expectations program has been an effective program of professional development that has helped them to expect more and achieve more for both teachers and students.
Chapter in Book
Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Expectations, Math, Peer Effects, Perceptions, Teachers
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- Research by (Baron, Tom, Cooper), Debra DeMeis, Ralph Turner, Haller, Robert Merton, Robert Rosenhal, Lenore Jacobson, Mary Lee Smith, Lee Jussin, Jacquelynne Eccles, Stephanie Madon, Claude Steele, Roz Mickelson, etc.
- Great Expectations Program: it aims to nurture in all students, not only the most talented, the expectation that they are destined to be important people if they do their best in school to prepare well for the future.
- California Achievement Test, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, General Social Survey, Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP), California Achievement Test for Math (CATM), NELS, etc.