Expert Report of Patricia Gurin-Gratz et. al. v. Bollinger et. al.
University of Michigan
Expert report from Gratz and Grutter
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Gratz, et al. v. Bollinger, et al.
- Students learn better in a diverse educational environment. Students educated in a diverse environment are better prepared to become active participants in a democratic society even after leaving the educational setting.
- Students learn more and think in deeper more complex ways in diverse educational environment.
- Students who experienced the most racial/ethnic diversity in class and informally showed greatest engagement in active thinking processes, growth in intellectual engagement, and motivation and growth in intellectual and academic skills.
- Students with most diversity experiences during college had most cross-racial interactions 5 years after leaving college. Structural diversity had positive effects on classroom diversity and interactional diversity among all students.
- Interaction with diverse peers was more consistently influential than classroom diversity for learning outcomes of African Americans.
Academic Achievement, Desegregation, Diversity, Grutter v. Bollinger, Long Term Outcomes, Non Academic Outcomes
Method of Analysis:
National Higher Education
Unit of Analysis:
- Michigan Student Study, Intergroup Relation, Conflict, and Community program at the University of Michigan.
- 4 year and 9 year data on a large national sample of institutions.
- Students from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program and the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute that were collected from 9,316 students attending nearly two hundred colleges and universities.
- Also analyzed data from the Michigan Student Study (MSS)
- DV: Different student outcomes (learning outcomes: growth in active thinking processes, engagement and motivation, intellectual and academic skills, value placed on these skills & democracy outcomes: citizenship engagement, racial/cultural engagement and compatibility of differences)
- IV: Campus diversity (classroom diversity, informal interactional diversity, and structural diversity)
- Control variables: Student background characteristics