Reber, Sarah J.
Court-Ordered Desegregation: Successes and Failures Integrating American Schools Since Brown Versus Board of Education
University of California, Los Angeles
The purpose is to assess whether desegregation plans led to losses in White enrollment and examine the effects of plans on the loss of White students.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Journal of Human Resources
Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 559-590
- Desegregation plans reduced segregation significantly in the short run.
- The policies are significantly related to a rise in non-White exposure to Whites, but the long-term effect is reduced due to White flight---up to 1/3 of the initial increase in non-White exposure was offset by White flight.
- The plans are associated with large increases in White exposure to non-Whites.
- White exposure continued to rise, reflecting continuing with enrollment losses. White flight around the time of plan implementation was more substantial for districts that achieved longer short-term reductions in segregation. The effect was stronger for districts in metropolitan areas with more nearby alternative school districts.
- Reber suggests that the success of desegregation plans was limited by the decision to exclude suburban districts from the plans.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Desegregation, Milliken v. Bradley, Resegregation, Residential Segregation, White Flight
Method of Analysis:
Two Stage Least Squares
Unit of Analysis:
- The study uses school level data on enrollment by race for a sample of 108 districts that had at least one court-ordered desegregation plan between 1961 and 1986. The data are from the US Commission on Civil Rights.
- Also included is the methods used in each district desegregation plan.
- It also includes information about all court-ordered desegregation plans in each of the districts sampled.
- This study analyzes data for Whites and non-Whites (including Hispanics).
- DV: The dissimilarity index and exposure index are used to measure segregation. White flight.
- IV: public school districts in MSA, percent in private schools, school segregation, region, plan characteristics.
- Control Variables: district area, total enrollment, initial White share of enrollment, percent employment in manufacturing, percent change city population.