Quillian, Lincoln, & Campbell, Mary E.
Beyond Black and White: The Present and Future of Multiracial Friendship Segregation
University of Wisconsin at Madison
Examines student friendship patterns across racial/ethnic groups in multiracial schools
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
American Sociological Review
Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 540-566
- The authors test five hypotheses of racial/ethnic minority group assimilation with respect to friendship formation. Study finds that students are more likely to select friends from their own group.
- Race is a stronger predictor than SES.
- Busing and tracking did not have significant effects. There are strong racial composition effects for all groups.
- Key findings are that:
- (1) cross-race friendships with Asian and Hispanic students are more common than those between White and Black students, but race and Hispanic background have significant influences on student friendships that persist over immigrant generations; other minority students show own-race preferences that are nearly as strong as the own race preferences of non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks;
(2) Black or White racial identifications are strongly associated with the friendship choices of Hispanic students; Blacks (including Black Hispanics) are highly segregated from all other racial groups.
- The share of cross-race friends depends on the share of potential friends in the school context who are other race. However, students in schools in which they are members of a small minority substantially increase their odds of own-race friend selection.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Asians, Cross Race Friendships, Friendships, Hispanics, Immigrants, Latinos, Racial Composition
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- The data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Survey given to students grades 7-12 in 144 schools in 80 U.S. communities Sept 1994 to April 1995. - Representative sample of all U.S. schools with 7th-12th graders. Total of 90,118 surveys. Final sample is about 130 students and a base sample of 72,957 respondents.
- The questionnaire asks students to list friends. School administrator reports provide data on school characteristics, except for school racial composition, which is calculated from student surveys.
- Explanatory variables are from student self reported survey data----GPA, mother's education, mother's occupation, mother's place of birth (native or foreign born) and student's place of birth (native or foreign born).
- School characteristics include racial composition.
- DV: Friendship on Dyadic Characteristics
- IV: race of receiver by generation, SES status and achievement, controls, network dummy variables.
- Regression and P* model for social networks are used to analyze the data.