Relation of Parental Involvement, Empowerment, and School Traits to Student Academic Performance
Montgomery County Public Schools
What is the relation of parental involvement in education to student academic performance? What is the relation of parent perceptions of involvement and empowerment and school structural characteristics to student academic performance?
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
The Journal of Educational Research
Vol 90 No 1 pp. 33-41
Results showed that measures of parental involvement and empowerment could be reliably
predicted. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental involvement and empowerment accounted for substantial variance in student standardized test performance (lowest R2 = 25% and 5%, respectively). Positive relations of parental involvement to student test performance were largely unaffected by school characteristics or the socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic composition of the student population.
Schools having higher percentages of African Americans, Hispanics, and students enrolled in the
free-or reduced-lunch program had lower parental involvement and CRT scores.
Free or reduced lunch contributed a significant amount of variance to the model; the greater the percentage of students enrolled in the free-or-reduced-lunch program, the lower were the student CRT scores. Parental empowerment and involvement were significantly and positively related to student CRT scores; parental involvement had the greatest predictive power.
Schools having higher levels of parental involvement and empowerment also had higher student CRT scores. In addition, schools having higher levels of parental involvement had fewer teachers and more experienced teachers than schools having lower levels of parental involvement.
Both parental empowerment and involvement significantly and positively predicted student CRT
scores; parental involvement accounted for a greater portion of the variance.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Academic Achievement, Composition, Outcomes, Parents, Reading, School Characteristics, Science, Student Characteristics, Vocabulary
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
The sample consisted of approximately one third (41 schools) of a total of 122 elementary schools
representing a large suburban school district located in a metropolitan area. The schools were
arrayed according to their geographic regions in the school district. Every third school within each
organizational unit was then systematically selected. All parents in selected schools constituted the initial sample.
Parents responded to 30 items measuring their involvement and feelings of empowerment, using a 4-point Likert-type scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree).
There were 11,317 parents in the respondent
sample. The racial composition of the respondent sample was similar to that of the population.
The two main independent variables are involvement and empowerment.
The other independent variables used included school and student characteristics.
Student characteristics included number of students; student capacity; percentage of the school used; number of professionals and teachers assigned to the school; percentage of teachers with 4 or fewer years’ experience; and percentage of students new to the school system and to the school.
School characteristics included percentage of students in (a) racial and ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, Hispanics, and Whites), (b) the free-or reduced-lunch program, and (c) enrolled in ESOL.
The DV is student academic performance on the state’s criterion-referenced test (CRT) the test asses the students ability to complete tasks relating to specific course content in the following subject areas; reading, writing, language use, mathematics, science, and social science.