Clotfelter, Charles T., Ladd, Helen, & Vigdor, Jacob
Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School. A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects
Examining the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement in high schools, especially in the core courses taken early in a student's high school career.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Journal of Human Resources
Vol.4 No. 3 pp. 655-681
Their findings Imply that the uneven distribution of teacher credentials by race and socioeconomic status of high school students, a pattern we also document, contributes to achievement gaps in high school.
With respect to classroom characteristics, classrooms with larger percentages of non-White students are associated with lower test scores for individual students in those classrooms. In contrast, classrooms with high average peer achievement and classes designated as advanced are associated with higher test scores.
There are large negative coefficients for Black, “other” race and male teachers, coefficients that emerge even though we have controlled for their credentials.
Teacher credentials are sufficiently important that they can be used as the basis for policies to improve student achievement.
Teachers with some experience are more effective than novice teachers, but, beyond the first five years, additional experience adds little to effectiveness.
Having a graduate degree is not predictive of higher achievement compared to having a teacher without a graduate degree.
Black males are more than twice as likely as White females to have a teacher with low test scores.
Findings indicate that teacher test scores are predictive of student achievement and that teacher test scores in math are particularly important for student achievement in algebra and geometry.
Being taught by a teacher who is certified in the subject she is teaching or in a related subject leads to higher test scores.
Teacher preparation in math has positive effects on student test scores in math.
Teachers appear to become better teachers as a result of the Board Certification process.
The systematic differences in the distribution of teacher credentials by their students’ race, gender, and education level of parents combined with the evi- dence presented in this paper that teachers’ credentials are predictive of student achievement should be cause for serious policy concern.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Ability Groups, Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Classroom Composition, English, Gender, Math, Teacher Quality
Method of Analysis:
Fixed Effects Regression Models
9th and 10th graders
Unit of Analysis:
Classroom, Educator, Student
North Carolina has long had a standard course of study for students in all grades, including those in high school. Moreover, since the early 1990s it has administered statewide end-of-course (EOC) tests at the high school level.
Though EOC tests are given in multiple subjects, we restrict our analysis here to the five subjects that are typically taken by students in the ninth and tenth grades: algebra; economic, legal and political systems (ELP)"; English I; geometry; and biology.
The EOC test scores count for 25 percent of the student's grade in the course.
They analyze four cohorts of tenth graders—those who were in tenth grade in 1999/ 2000. 20(XV01. 2001/02, and 2(K)2/03.
The final sample includes only those students for whom we could match at least three teachers to the EOC tests.
IV: Teacher Credentials, teacher characteristics, classroom characteristics.
Teacher credentials include; years of experience, educational background, licensure test scores, type of licensure, and various forms of certification including National Board Certification.
Teacher characteristics include; race, gender, and area of interest.
Classroom characteristics include; class size, if they are advanced, percent non-White, percent male, and the average class achievement.
DV: Students E.O.C. grades in 5 subjects taken in the 9th and tenth grades.