Author: Palardy, Gregory J.

Title: Classroom-Based Inequalities and Achievement Gaps in the First Grade: The Role of Classroom Context and Access to Qualified and Effective Teachers

University Affiliation: University of California, Riverside


Research Question:

Published: Yes

Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation: Teachers College Record

Journal Entry: Vol. 117, No. 2, Pp. 1-48

Year: 2015


  1. The results show that underrepresented minority students enter elementary school lagging behind white children in terms of cognitive skills. At the start of first grade black students are behind by .45 standard deviations or 3.05 months in reading and .69 SD or 4.83 months in math.
  2. Similarly, Hispanic children are behind 0.42 standard deviations or 2.85 months for reading and 0.53 SD or 4.06 months for math.
  3. Results show that 20% of the variance in reading achievement gains and 13% of the variance in math gains are attributable to classroom and school factors combined.
  4. Approximately 52% of the Black-White reading gap that accumulated during the first grade and 45% of the math gap were due to classroom and school factors.
  5. Similarly 55% of the Hispanic-White reading gap and 34% of the math gap were due to classroom and school factors.
  6. Black and Hispanic children are members of classrooms with significantly higher mobility rates, lower mean achievement in reading and math, larger class enrollment, and less adequate instructional supplies.
  7. URM were less likely to have attended preschool, had lower teacher ratings on interpersonal skills and self-control, and spent less time reading outside of school.
  8. Compared to White children in the same school, Black children tended to be members of a classroom with more negative contextual characteristics and a less effective teacher

Scholarship Type Journal Article Empirical Research

Keywords: Achievement Gap, Classroom Composition, Inequality, Teachers

Regions National

Methodologies: Quantitative

Research Designs: Secondary Survey Data

Method of Analysis: Multilevel Models

Sampling Frame: First graders from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS)

Sample Types: Nationally Representative

Unit of Analysis: Classroom, School, Student

Data Types: Quantitative-Longitudinal

Data Description:


Entry Created at: 2016-01-16 18:02:24 UTC
Last Update: 2016-09-10 01:18:50 UTC