Author: Palardy, Gregory J., & Rumberger, Russell W.

Title: Teacher Effectiveness in the First Grade: The Importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes, and Instructional Practices for Student Learning

University Affiliation: University of California, Riverside


Research Question: What proportion of the variation in student achievement gains can be attributed to each of the general sources: individual differences in student background, classroom effects, and school effects? To what degree do differences in teacher effectiveness affect student achievement gains? What is the relative size of the effects of student background qualifications, attitudes and instructional practices on student achievement gains in first grade?

Published: Yes

Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis

Journal Entry: Vol. 30, No. 2, Pp. 111-140

Year: 2008


  1. 72.5% of the variance in reading and 75.3% of the variance in math achievement are between students within classrooms. Whereas only 7.4 and 7.9 percent of the variance in reading and math achievement respectively are between classrooms within schools. 20.2% of the variance in reading and 18.25 of the variance in math are between schools.
  2. Findings suggest that there is far more variance in student achievement gains between students within classrooms than between classrooms within schools or between schools.
  3. Both family SES and ethnicity are associated with achievement gains at the individual level.
  4. Proportion minority in classroom is negatively associated with reading but not mathematics scores. Mean SES of the classroom is positively associated with mean math and reading scores.
  5. Teacher background attitudes and practices also had effects on the reading scores. Certification level of teachers was positively correlated with reading scores.
  6. lReading frequently, and silent reading in the classroom were positively correlated with reading scores.

Scholarship Type Journal Article Empirical Research

Keywords: Academic Achievement, No Child Left Behind, Teacher Quality

Regions National

Methodologies: Quantitative

Research Designs: Model

Method of Analysis: Multilevel Models

Sampling Frame: National first graders

Sample Types: Random

Unit of Analysis: Student

Data Types: Quantitative-Longitudinal

Data Description: