Palardy, Gregory J., & Rumberger, Russell W.
Teacher Effectiveness in the First Grade: The Importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes, and Instructional Practices for Student Learning
University of California, Riverside
What proportion of the variation in student achievement gains can be attributed to each of the general sources: individual differences in student background, classroom effects, and school effects? To what degree do differences in teacher effectiveness affect student achievement gains? What is the relative size of the effects of student background qualifications, attitudes and instructional practices on student achievement gains in first grade?
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
Vol. 30, No. 2, Pp. 111-140
- 72.5% of the variance in reading and 75.3% of the variance in math achievement are between students within classrooms. Whereas only 7.4 and 7.9 percent of the variance in reading and math achievement respectively are between classrooms within schools. 20.2% of the variance in reading and 18.25 of the variance in math are between schools.
- Findings suggest that there is far more variance in student achievement gains between students within classrooms than between classrooms within schools or between schools.
- Both family SES and ethnicity are associated with achievement gains at the individual level.
- Proportion minority in classroom is negatively associated with reading but not mathematics scores. Mean SES of the classroom is positively associated with mean math and reading scores.
- Teacher background attitudes and practices also had effects on the reading scores. Certification level of teachers was positively correlated with reading scores.
- lReading frequently, and silent reading in the classroom were positively correlated with reading scores.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Academic Achievement, No Child Left Behind, Teacher Quality
Method of Analysis:
National first graders
Unit of Analysis:
- The study uses longitudinal data from ECLS which sampled approximately 20,000 kindergarteners enrolled in more than 1,000 public and private schools in the fall of 1998. This study final sample included 3,496 students 887 classrooms and 253 schools.
- DV: Math and Reading Achievement
- IV: Student level (Demographics, Family Background, Academic Background), Classroom Level (Student Racial and SES Composition, Instructional Resources, Class Size), School level (School composition, Resources, School size), Teacher Background, Teacher Attitude