Author: Frankenberg, Erica, & Le, Chinh Q.

Title: The Post-Parents Involved Challenge: Confronting Extralegal Obstacles to Integration

University Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University


Research Question: How do assumptions, structures, institutions and other factors that impact our educational system interact to create and perpetuate inequality? Is school racial segregation one of the factors that create and perpetuate educational inequality?

Published: Yes

Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation: Ohio State Law Journal

Journal Entry: Vol. 69 Pp. 1015-1072

Year: 2008


  1. Although re-segregation has been occurring for Black students in all regions, it has been more rapid in the south, which recently lost its distinction as the most desegregated region.
  2. Black and Latino students enrolled in large central city schools remain in the most segregated schools; almost 2 out of every 3 Black and Latino students attend 90-100% non-White schools.
  3. In Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 the Supreme Court held that the use of individual student race in public school assignment plans was not constitutional even if the desegregation plan is voluntary.
  4. The Supreme Court opinion is a setback for the integration of schools because without including individual student race in assignment policies, it is more difficult to create pupil assignment plans that yield desegregated schools.
  5. Parents Involved ruling alone doesn’t account for the many school districts that have not offered solutions to address racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic isolation.
  6. Other contributing factors to school segregation are (1) other judicial decisions regarding school desegregation, particularly Milliken (1974), prevented metropolitan area remedies to school segregation; and (2) segregated housing patterns that were influenced by personal preferences, discriminatory housing policy, and other legal decisions.
  7. The systematic nature of the governmental policies constructed ghettos that segregated African Americans in both Northern and Southern cities.
  8. The federal magnet schools program should be revised to reflect the shifting racial demographics. Doing so would necessitate making changes in the policies in order to promote racial integration.
  9. Scholarship Type Journal Article Empirical Research

    Keywords: Integration, Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 , Public Schools

    Regions National

    Methodologies: Quantitative

    Research Designs: Policy Analysis

    Method of Analysis: Policy Analysis

    Sampling Frame: n/a

    Sample Types: Nonrandom

    Unit of Analysis: Key Supreme Court cases

    Data Types: Court cases

    Data Description: Authors use court case and historical analysis to analyze school segregation.


    Entry Created at: 2016-01-04 00:20:59 UTC
    Last Update: 2017-06-19 20:44:32 UTC