Author: Mickelson, Roslyn A.

Title: The Cumulative Disadvantages of First- and Second-Generation Segregation for Middle School Achievement

University Affiliation: University of North Carolina at Charlotte


Research Question: 1) What was the extent of first- and second-generation segregation in CMS middle schools as of 1997? 2) What student- and school-level factors predicted middle school track placements and achievement in reading and mathematics? 3) Do segregated minority schools and disproportionate minority lower track levels contribute to students’ achievement exclusive of other factors? 4.Do first- and second-generation segregation operate to sequentially and cumulatively disadvantage those who experience it?

Published: Yes

Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation: American Educational Research Journal

Journal Entry: Vol. 52, No.4, Pp 657-692

Year: 2015


  1. In 1997, 4 of CMS’s 24 middle schools were racially imbalanced White, 16 were racially balanced, and four were racially imbalanced Black. On average over 17.6% of students in segregated White school were Black. Also, in segregated Black schools, on average, 23.4% of the students were White.
  2. While nearly three-quarters of the second-grade White students who scored in the highest decile were in college preparatory language arts in CMS middle schools, less than one-fifth of similarly able Black students were in the top track.
  3. White second grader scoring in the second decile had a greater likelihood of placement in a college preparatory track in Grade 8 that a Black second grader who scored in the top decile in this or her CAT test.
  4. Holding all factors constant, the more years’ students spend in segregated elementary schools, the lower was their likelihood of learning in a college preparatory track once they got to middle school. (-1.522***).
  5. Black students (-0.456**) were less likely than Whites to be in higher tracks.
  6. Students with higher SES (.537**), concrete attitudes (0.153*), and prior achievement (0.040***) were more likely to be on the college preparatory track in middle school.
  7. Self-reported effort, cultural capital, abstract attitudes, and gender did not predict track placement.
  8. Attending racially imbalanced schools was negatively associated with middle school college preparatory track placement. Both forms of segregation are associated with EOG scores.

Scholarship Type Journal Article Empirical Research

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Desegregation, Middle School, Segregation, Tracking

Regions South

Methodologies: Quantitative

Research Designs: Survey

Method of Analysis: Multilevel Models

Sampling Frame: Grade 8 students who attended the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

Sample Types: Random

Unit of Analysis: Student

Data Types: Quantitative

Data Description: The sample used in this study included 1,812 students in CMS, the sample of the school was representative of the overall demographics of the districts population. DV: End of Grade Tests (math and reading), college preparatory track. IV: Exposure to elementary segregation, middle school segregation, track placement, race, gender, family SES, effort, prior achievement, abstract and concrete attitudes towards education, school


Entry Created at: 2015-10-14 16:15:10 UTC
Last Update: 2016-09-27 23:09:38 UTC