Byun, Soo-yong, Kim, Kyung-Keun, & Park, Hyunjoon
School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea
Pennsylvania State University, Korea University, University of Pennsylvania
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1) Does the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP) relate to the separation of low and high SES students between schools? 2) Does school’s socioeconomic composition relate to student achievement?
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Journal of School Choice
Volume 6, Pp.158-183
- Descriptive Statistics: There were significant gaps in school mean SES
between HSEP and non-HSEP regions, more favoring the HSEP regions (.15) than the non-HSEP regions (-.24).
- Between School Variances in SES: There are smaller between-school variances in SES in the regions of HSEPimplementation than in the regions of non-HSEP implementation.
- Likelihood of Attending Higher SES Schools: Students from a disadvantaged background in the regions of HSEP implementation were less likely than their counterparts from a similar background in the regions of non-HSEP implementation to be separated into low SES schools.
- The Relationship Between School SES and Student Achievement: Mean school SES was significantly related to school achievement in both regions of HSEP and non-HSEP implementation. One unit increase in mean school SES was associated with an increase of approximately 11 points and 16 points in the reading achievement grade in HSEP regions and non-HSEP regions, respectively. When all metropolitan and rural areas were excluded, mean school SES was insignificantly related to
student achievement in the regions of HSEP implementation, whereas it
remained significant for the regions of non-HSEP implementation.
- Socioeconomic composition of a school students attended was importation to predict student achievement in the regions of non-HSEP implementation, but this was not the case in the HSEP regions.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Academic Achievement, Choice, Reform, Residential Segregation, SES Composition, School Quality
Method of Analysis:
Descriptive Statistics, Multilevel Models, Multinomial Logistic Regression
11th grade students in South Korean public high schools
Unit of Analysis:
- Data collected in 2006 by the Korean Educational Development Institute
(KEDI). The overall survey samples 11th graders in the given academic
year. The final sample used in the current study includes students who
completed both a survey and achievement tests totaling 7,350 students
representing 127 schools.
- DV: Student achievement, measured in reading test scores ranging from
0 to 100.
- IV: HSEP implementation (whether or not the school is located in a HSEP
region in 2006); school SES composition (composed of the average
student SES of the school, where student SES was measured by parental
education, family income, and home educational resources)
- Controls: individual SES, family structure, number of siblings, parental
educational expectations, gender, hours spent self-studying per week,
hours spent using a computer per week, attending a cram school, selfreported prior achievement at grade 10; level-2 controls included:
average teaching experience among teachers, school sector, school