Ferri, Beth A., & Connor, David J.
Tools of Exclusion: Race, Disability, and (Re)segregated Education
Syracuse University; Columbia University
Examines the resistance to school desegregation and inclusion of students with disabilities in public education.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Teachers College Record
Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 453-474
- The authors shows how the rhetoric of race and the rhetoric of disability overlap and are used to justify exclusion.
- The discourses on desegregation and inclusion are examined as they relate to the topic of change at the local level in response to two federal mandates: Brown and IDEA.
- Editorials during the Brown era emphasized the merits of gradual implementation of desegregation practices.
- The authors find that the delay was used to circumvent desegregation orders.
- With the passage of IDEA, opposition to inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classes shifted to advocating a gradual, cautious implementation.
- The article demonstrates how groups negotiated inequality and sought to change it or maintain it.
- Racism and ableism function together as a means of exclusion.
- Inclusion and desegregation are connected. Gradualism in both cases allowed discourses of exclusion to thrive.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Brown vs Board of Education, Desegregation, Resegregation
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- The data are from newspapers from two eras (1954-1956, during Brown decision) and 1987-2002 (years of debate over disabilities inclusion).
- Editorials written by newspaper editors, "op-ed" pieces by columnists or contributing writers and letters to the editors. The newspapers are from the North and the South, mainstream and independent.
- From 1954-56 data are from five papers and includes 450 pages of text, 250 pages from Black press. During the later period, 165 pages of text are from the mainstream press and 35 pages from the Black press.