Crain, Robert L., & Mahard, Rita
Desegregation and Black Achievement: A Review of the Research
John Hopkins University
Review of research on desegregation and Black achievement
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Law and Contemporary Problems
Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 17-56
- Forty studies find positive effects of desegregation for Black achievement.
- Twelve show a negative effect.
- The achievement gains are small, compared to the size of the Black-White achievement gap.
- The review discusses methodological issues in the research (ex. experiments are difficult to execute, voluntary plans create self-selection problem).
- The review identifies factors which influence the success of desegregation plans (region of the country, grade level at which desegregation first occurs, curriculum factors, and type of desegregation plan).
- Desegregation has more positive impacts the earlier it is implemented.
- Effects of desegregation for achievement have been inconsistent.
- The average gain in achievement on the studies for which the authors coded quantitative data is one-half a grade change in the first one or two years. Each desegregation case is different and identical results should not be expected.
- Desegregation has improved achievement for Black students by closing inadequate segregated schools.
Journal Article Review of Literature
Academic Achievement, Desegregation
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- 73 studies of the effects of desegregation and Black achievement are reviewed and analyzed. The sample is limited to studies of specific desegregation plans. Two questions are addressed: What is the averaged effect of desegregation on Black achievement? What are the effects of age of student, region of the country, and voluntary versus mandatory student reassignment on Black achievement?
- Studies reviewed include: Stallings (1955), Felice (1974), Justin & Thabit (1974), Beker (1967), Fortenberry (1959), Aberdeen (1969), Evans (1973), Mahan & Mahn (1971)