Clotfelter, Charles T.
After Brown: The Rise and Retreat of School Desegregation
An assessment of how Brown v. Board of Education's most visible effect - the contact between students of different racial groups - has changed over the past 50 years.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
- Interracial contact also has direct relevance to the use of ability grouping or academic tracking. These policies are employed widely at all levels of education, particularly in high schools.
- Interracial contact in schools offers students from all racial and ethnic groups the chance to learn about living in a diverse society, giving them an advantage in the workforce due to their experience working in a diverse environment.
- Segregation averaged 0.20 in grades 1 an 4 in 2000-2001 and 0.23 in grades 7 and 10.
- Segregation rose in North Carolina between 1994-1995 and 2000-2001 at every grade level.
- In the upper grades within-school segregation was much higher: 0.12 in grade 7 and 0.15 in grade 10.
- Segregation between schools showed an opposite pattern - highest in elementary grades and lowest in tenth grade.
- There is a greater racial disparity between elementary schools, caused by the larger number of elementary schools and their tendency to reflect racially segregated residential patterns.
- For the whole sample, the actual degree of interracial exposure (15.3% non-White in the average White student's organization) is some 26% less than it would be if all school organizations within each school had the same racial composition.
- Only about 3% of the White members were in organizations where Whites were one-quarter or less of the group.
- More than half of the non-White members were in organization where whites were one-quarter or less of the group.
- Most all of the studied universities have seen an increase in racially different enrollment, expect for Historically Black Colleges and Universities, which have reverted to over 97% Black after a small swell in White enrollment in the 1980s.
- Overall findings: interracial contact increased dramatically as a result of post-Brown desegregation, but contrary forces restrained the extend of this increase.
Brown vs Board of Education, Contact Theory , Desegregation, Long Term Outcomes
Method of Analysis:
North Carolina schools
Unit of Analysis:
- Compares patterns of interracial contact across regions in the country, in communities both inside and outside metropolitan areas.
- Analyzes classroom-level data for North Carolina, which allows the measuring of segregation within schools as well as between them.
- Used data from North Carolina's 117 school districts in 1994-95 and 2000-01.
- Applies same methodology to 28 college institutions to determine how segregation has changed in their enrollment over the last fifty years.
- DV: Changes in interracial contact in schools since Brown v. Board of Education
- IV: Racial composition of extracurricular activates, sports teams, classrooms and clubs in NC secondary schools, as well as racial composition of enrollment in select universities