The Continuing Relationship Between Racial and Socioeconomic Composition and Achievement in North Carolina Schools
Effects of school characteristics on NC students' reading and math achievement from 4th through 8th grade.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
- Racial and socioeconomic composition of schools affect student achievement net of student, family and other school influences.
- As the percent of either minority students or students on free lunch increases in schools, predicted reading and math scores decline. The exception of this pattern is for racially imbalanced White, middle poverty schools, students in the racially imbalanced White middle poverty schools have higher achievement than students in any other school type.
- Although being in classrooms with higher proportions of low-income students affects student achievement, the racial balance of a school has effects independent of the ses composition of a school, even when controlling for student factors and other school characteristics.
- Increasing teacher quality and school resources reduces, but does not eliminate, the effects of school racial and socioeconomic composition on student achievement.
- With the exception of per pupil expenditures, school characteristics affect achievement differently depending on the year being studied.
- Teacher license is the most consistent predictor of students' math and reading achievement and that the % of inexperienced teachers in a school only had a negative effect on achievement in fourth grade.
- As students progress through school ,gender gaps between White females and males are eliminated and the achievement gap between Hispanic and White students actually reverses when family and school characteristics are controlled. In contrast, the gap between Black and White students actually grows as students progress through school, even after controlling for school and individual characteristics.
- Because Black students are more likely than other racial group to attend high poverty schools and schools with over 75 percent of minority students, schools that have the fewest qualified teachers, and least academic press, they are at a distinct disadvantage in the NC educational system.
Academic Achievement, Math, Racial Composition, Reading, SES, SES Composition
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
cohort of ES & MS NC students from 4 to 8 grade
Unit of Analysis:
- Cohort of NC students who were in third grade in 1999/2000, in fourth grade in the 2000/2001 school year, in sixth grade in the 2002/2003 school year and in eight grade in the 2004/2005 school year.
- Elementary and Middle School Students
- Sample consisted of 56,176 students: 19,188 are White females (34.15%), 16,907 are White males (30.09%), 8,962 are Black females (15.88%), 6,619 are Black males (11.78%), 1,006 are Hispanic females (.017%), 871 are Hispanic males (.016), 1,460 are Other females (.025%), and 1,199 are Other males (.021%).
- DV: students' yearly achievement in fourth grade, sixth grade and eight grade (math and reading) measures by their EG scores.
- IV: Race composition (racially imbalanced schools White schools as those with over 74% White students, racially imbalanced minority schools as those with less than 26% White students and racially balanced schools as schools that have between 26 and 74% of White students) and SES composition( low poverty schools between 0-25% students on free or reduced lunch, mid poverty schools between 26-74% students on free or reduced lunch and high poverty schools 75-100% students on free or reduced lunch), student/teacher ratios, teacher characteristics, per pupil expenditures, race/gender cohorts, socioeconomic status, afterschool activities, prior achievement