School Racial and Ethnic Composition Effect on Academic Achievement of Latino Adolescents
The University of Texas-Pan America
Studies the effects of school racial & SES composition, peer networks, and family social capital on the academic achievement of Latino adolescents.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Bowling Green State University
- School socioeconomic compositions is a more important predictor of Latino adolescents' academic achievement than racial composition.
- Surprisingly, immigrant generational status does not significantly influence Latino academic achievement in a linear progression.
- Educational stratification by social class, but not race, is an important school context factor that influences academic achievement of Latino adolescents. Needless to say, minority and low-income enrollment are inexorably correlated with one another.
- Homogenous networks are advantageous to Latino adolescents.
- Cuban-American adolescents are much more likely than other Latino students to benefit from homogeneous and dense peer networks.
- All generations of Latino youth have better academic performance in schools with higher peer network homogeneity and density.
- The family social capital mediates school effects on academic achievement.
- The average academic achievement across immigrant generational status reveals a completely different picture depending on whether GPA or AHPVT was used as dependent variable.
- Both school peer networks homogeneity and density are strongly associated with better grades and higher AHPVT scores among Latino adolescents.
- Latino youth are more advantaged in terms of school social capital in low-SES schools than in high-SES schools. Therefore, the positive effect of school social capital counter-balances the negative effect of attending a low-SES school.
- Native Latino youth are more advantaged in terms of school social capital than immigrant Latino youth.
- Among Latino adolescents, regardless of their immigrant generational status and ethnicity, high levels of family social capital, measured as parents' supervision, limit setting and expectations, contribute to Latino adolescents' educational progress. Additionally, family influences, according to the results of the analyses, mediate the impact of immigrant generation.
- Parents' income and education, indeed, have consistently positive impacts on academic achievement.
Academic Achievement, Ethnicity, Hispanics, Latinos, Racial Composition, Social Capital, Vocabulary
Secondary Survey Data
Method of Analysis:
High Schools in the US
Unit of Analysis:
- Data comes from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) 1995.
- The purpose is to investigate how academic performance across immigrants generations and ethnic origin varies by social context.
- Differentiates among Latinos: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and others (mainly South Americans).
- Final sample contains 3,888 Latino students from 132 schools.
- DV: Academic Achievement (Add Health Picture Vocabulary Test) and Grade Point Average (GPA).
- IV: Racial composition, socioeconomic composition, peer network homogeneity and density.
- Control variables: SES, gender, age, frequency of involvement in extracurricular activities, and family structure.