Kugelmass, Heather, & Ready, Douglas D.
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Collegiate Cognitive Gains: A Multilevel Analysis of Institutional Influences on Learning and its Equitable Distribution
Council for Aid to Education; Columbia University
Addresses whether racial/ethnic inequalities in academic performance that are present at college entry are moderated, exacerbated, or maintained during college and whether institutional attributes are associated with student learning.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Research in Higher Education
Vol. 52, Pp. 323-348
- 8% of variability in academic development lies across institutions.
- The initial African American/white achievement gap widens somewhat during the course of undergraduate study.
- Females make somewhat larger academic gains than males (after controlling for other student-level characteristics).
- The African American/white inequalities in student learning are somewhat smaller at colleges that enroll larger proportions of African Americans.
- This benefit is amplified in institutions that enroll higher-achieving students and reduced in colleges with academically weaker students.
- African American students benefit somewhat more from additional budgetary outlays compared to white students attending the same institution.
- Hispanic and white students gain academic skills at comparable rates.
Journal Article Empirical Research
Achievement Gap, African American, College, Hispanics
Secondary Data, Survey
Method of Analysis:
American college students in four-year institution
Unit of Analysis:
- Data come from the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) and institution-level variables were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).
- Sample includes 35,323 students in 1,390 fields in 245 colleges and universities.
- - DV: Scores on the Collegiate Learning Assessment (open-ended test aiming to assess studentsâ€™ critical thinking skills)
- - IV: Student level- initial academic ability (SAT score); race/ethnicity; gender; language status (non-native versus native English speaker); whether students had transferred to their current college from another four-year institution. Field of study level- studentsâ€™ primary major (collapsed into one of six fields: social science, natural science and engineering and mathematics [STEM], humanities and language, business, helping/service, and other). Institutional level- institution setting (size, urbanicity, and residential status); institution classification (sector; HBCU status); student body composition (proportion of enrollment that is African American, proportion of enrollment that is Hispanic, student body socioeconomic status [per student Pell Grant funding], school selectivity [median incoming SAT score], gender composition); and school fiscal expenditures (total dollars spent per full-time student, student-related expenses [spending on instruction, academic support, and student services])