Wortman, Paul M., & Bryant, Fred B.
School Desegregation and Black Achievement: An Integrative Review
University of Michigan; Loyola University of Chicago
Assesses the social science research on the effects of desegregation on Black studentsâ€™ achievement to provide a magnitude and direction of such an effect.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Sociological Methods & Research
Vol. 13, Pp. 289-324
- Previous meta-analyses had little or no inclusion criteria and therefore included studies regardless of quality.
- Authors found that students moving from almost completely segregated environments to predominantly white schools showed a sizable effect (1.06). This is equivalent to about a two-month gain or benefit for desegregated students.
- The effect size for reading achievement (.57) was considerably larger than that for math (.33), though the difference is not statistically significant.
- They found a curvilinear pattern of effects with an increase from grades 1-7 and a decrease from 8-12.
- NIE meta-analysis revealed an effect size of .14, with a .28 effect for reading and a .23 effect for math.
Journal Article Empirical Research
African American, Desegregation, Math, Reading
Method of Analysis:
Studies of desegregation effects on Black students
Unit of Analysis:
- Selection criteria for studies includes a research design that is nonequivalent control group experiments and quasi-experiments which lack a control group. Studies were excluded if they do not use standardized achievement tests, failed to report pretest scores, or did not separate student performance by grade level.
- Studies were collected by systematically synthesizing the literature on the effects of school desegregation, conducting literature searches via ERIC, dissertation abstracts, references in articles and books, and letters to authors and school district offices.
- After selection criteria were imposed, 31 studies were included in the meta-analysis.
- A supplemental meta-analysis was conducted by the National Institute of Education (NIE), which was composed of 2 pro-desegregation scholars, 2 anti-desegregation scholars, and 2 scholars who were neutral. They employed different selection criteria for studies, though a similar method.
- Data were analyzed using Glassâ€™ (1977) technique for meta-analysis.