Koedel, Cory, Betts, Julian R., Rice, Lorien A., & Zau, Andrew C.
The Social Cost of Open Enrollment as a School Choice Policy
University of Missouri
Evaluates the effects of three San Diego, California school choice programs on integration by race, student achievement and parental education levels.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
- Students use all three choice programs to attend schools that are more socioeconomically advantaged than their local schools. Therefore, participation by minority and disadvantaged students exerts integrating pressure on the district, and participation by advantaged students, who are also seeking to improve the socioeconomic status of their peers, exerts segregating pressure.
- The VEEP and magnet programs integrate SDUSD by race, student achievement and parental-education status.
- The open-enrollment program segregates students across all three dimensions of integration.
- Minority and disadvantaged students are consistently over-represented in VEEP, (roughly) fairly-represented in magnet, and under-represented in open enrollment.
- VEEP and magnet programs increase the exposure of Whites to non-Whites, and vice-versa.
- The open-enrollment program increases the exposure of Whites to Asians but segregates Whites from Blacks and Hispanics. Notably, Asian students at SDUSD are much less likely to be disadvantaged than other non-White groups.
- Looking specifically at the change in exposure between students from high and low parental education families, the effects of the choice programs seem fairly mild and again, the open-enrollment program applies segregating pressure.
Academic Achievement, Choice, Parents, Segregation
Method of Analysis:
School choice applicants
Unit of Analysis:
- Data are based on applications to the three school choice programs (i.e., Voluntary Ethnic Enrollment Program (VEEP), magnet program, and statewide open-enrollment "Choice" program) at San Diego Unified School District (SDUSD) for fall 2001, submitted to the district during the 2000-2001 school year.
- Dataset includes basic demographic information about each student, including information on race, gender, parental education and English-learner status; as well as test-score achievement (from the Stanford 9exam, when available)
- Dataset also includes information on how each student acted on each available option in each school choice program and information on each school's student-body compositions.
- Excludes applications for Kindergarten and sixth grade, along with applications missing demographic data
- DV: Integration by race, student achievement, and parental education (parental education as "high" if at least one parent attended some college, "low" if no parent has attended any college)
- IV: Application to one of three school choice programs (see above: VEEP, magnet, open choice)