The Impact of School Choice and Public Policy on Segregation: Evidence from Chile
Universidad Diego Portales
Examines segregation between schools within a sector and variation within private voucher forprofit and non-profit (religious and secular) school sectors.
Journal Name or Institutional Affiliation:
Centro de Politicas Comparadas de Educacion
- In the aggregate, private voucher schools serve fewer disadvantaged students than public schools. However, the results also indicate that this aggregate analysis masks some differences within the private voucher sector.
- Indigenous students make up 8.1 percent of for-profit enrollments and only 6.4 percent of non-profit enrollments.
- The proportion of indigenous students has increased across sectors, on average about 1.5 percent between 1999 and 2006.
- The coefficient for public schools indicates that, on average, public schools serve 9 percentage points more high risk (vulnerable) students than private voucher schools after controlling for other school, local, and regional characteristics.
- The differences between public and private voucher schools decline by over 7 percentage points after controlling for whether or not private voucher schools charge tuition.
- Non-profit schools serve 3 percentage points fewer vulnerable students than for-profit voucher schools.
- After controlling for tuition and other covariates, public school serve 2 percentage points fewer high risk students than for-profit voucher schools that belong to a network.
- Private voucher schools serve more indigenous students than public schools.
- Private voucher schools that charge tuition serve, all else equal, enroll 4 percentage points fewer indigenous students than schools that do not levy fees.
- Indigenous students are more segregated from other non-indigenous students in private voucher schools than those in public schools.
- Indigenous students are more integrated with other non-indigenous students in for-profit network schools than in public and other private voucher school sectors.
- Among all schools, public schools have the most diverse enrollments and for-profit independent schools have the highest levels of segregation.
Choice, Private Schools, Public Schools, Segregation, Vouchers
Method of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis:
- Panel dataset constructed from the administrative records of the Ministry of Education of Chile.
- Two measures are used to compare the level of segregation between sectors:
- 1. The vulnerability index (- IVE) constructed by the Junta Nacional de Auxilio Escolar y Becas (JUNAEB, National Scholarship and School Aid Board)JUNAEB estimates - IVE on the basis of the results of a parent survey about students' background conducted by schools.
- 2. Percentage of indigenous students enrolled across sectors, as measured by parent questionnaires collected by Chile's national standardized test (Sistema de Medicion de la Calidad de la Educacion-SIMCE) which asks parents if the child's mother identifies herself as indigenous.
- DV: Number of disadvantaged students
- IV: Public vs. private school, religious affiliation, percentage of indigenous and at-risk students in municipality, profit vs. non-profit status, rural vs. urban location, age of school, tuition